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Case Studies
Case Studies

Case Studies (329)

Thursday, 29 December 2011 09:38

Northern Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Northern Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

The Baltic Sea hypoxia is caused by eutrophication and limited salt water input from the North Sea. In the northern Baltic Sea hypoxia is rare in the estuaries of the Bothnian Sea coastal zone. In the Swedish and Finnish archipelagos hypoxia is influenced by phytoplankton growth due to eutrophication and restricted water circulation.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden
  • Finland

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Conley D et al. 2011. Hypoxia Is Increasing in the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 6777–6783.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Northern Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 18:59:41 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 09:13

Stockholm Inner Archipelago, Sweden

Written by Johanna

Stockholm Inner Archipelago, Sweden

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

In the early 1970s the inner Stockholm archipelago was highly eutrophic. After decreases in nutrient inputs the environmental status has improved. Hypoxia has decreased in some - but not all - parts of the archipelago.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Karlsson M, Jonsson P. 2010. Indications of Recovery from Hypoxia in the Inner Stockholm Archipelago. Ambio 38, 486-495.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Stockholm Inner Archipelago, Sweden. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:00:15 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 09:03

Sea of Azov

Written by Johanna

Sea of Azov

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Sea of Azov has caused benthic mortality. Significant anoxia occurred in 1937, 1946, 1987 and 2001.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal
  • Freshwater lakes & rivers

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Asia

Region

  • Europe - Asia

Countries

  • Russia
  • Ukraine

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Debolskaya EI, Yakushev EV, Sukhinov AI. 2005. Formation of fish kills and anaerobic conditions in the Sea of Azov. Water Resources 32, 151-162.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Sea of Azov. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 18:59:44 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:54

Himmerfjärden, Sweden

Written by Johanna

Himmerfjärden, Sweden

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Himmerfjärden in southern Stockholm archipelago receives treated sewage. Himmerfjärden is stratified during summer, when hypoxia in bottom waters may develop. Sea ice may limit water exchange with the open Baltic Sea during winter.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Savage C, Elmgren R, Larsson U. 2002. Effects of sewage-derived nutrients on an estuarine macrobenthic community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 234, 67-82.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Himmerfjärden, Sweden. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:00:20 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:40

Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Gotland Basin was first recorded in the 1960s. It has caused benthic mortality and hypoxia areas are avoided by fish. Low dissolved oxygen content creates poor recruitment conditions for cod: mortality and low hatching of cod eggs together with reduced cod prey have been observed. Benthos recolonize the affected areas after bottom water renewal. Gotland Deep in the eastern Gotland Basin is anoxic.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • The Baltic Sea

Countries

  • Sweden
  • Estonia
  • Latvia

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Laine A, Sandler H, Andersin A-B, Stigzelius J. 1997. Long-term changes of macrozoobenthos in the Eastern Gotland Basin and the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) in relation to the hydrographical regime. Journal of Sea Research 38, 135-159.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 18:59:46 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:22

Byfjord, Sweden

Written by Johanna

Byfjord, Sweden

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Deep water hypoxia and anoxia in Byfjord are caused by stagnant water; the fjord is strongly stratified andwater renewal time is 2-5 years

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal
  • Freshwater lakes & rivers

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Rosenberg R, Olsson I, Ölundh E. 1977. Energy flow model of an oxygen-deficient estuary on the Swedish west coast. Marine Biology 42, 99-107.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Byfjord, Sweden. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:01:33 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:03

Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Arkona basin is persistent and anoxia occurs regularly below the halocline. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is caused by eutrophication and limited salt water input from the North Sea.  

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • The Baltic Sea

Countries

  • Sweden
  • Denmark
  • Germany

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Karlson K, Rosenberg R, Bonsdorff E. 2002. Temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in Scandinavian and Baltic waters: A review. Oceanography and Marine Biology 40, 427-489.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:01:31 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:46

Sullom Voe, Scotland

Written by Johanna

Sullom Voe, Scotland

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Persistent hypoxia in Sullom Voe has caused benthic mass mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • Shetland Islands

Countries

  • United Kingdom

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Pearson TH, Eleftheriou A. 1981. The benthic ecology of Sullom Voe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section B 80, 241-269.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Sullom Voe, Scotland. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:36 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:39

Loch Creran, Scotland

Written by Johanna

Loch Creran, Scotland

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Persistent hypoxia in Loch Creran has caused benthic mass mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • Scotland

Countries

  • United Kingdom

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Gage J. 1972. Preliminary survey of the benthic macrofauna and sediments in Lochs Etive and Creran, sea-lochs along the west coast of Scotland. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 52, 237-276.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Loch Creran, Scotland. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:38 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:12

Caspian Sea

Written by Johanna

Caspian Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Caspian Sea depends on the river discharge of Volga: high flow years cause low dissolved oxygen content in deep areas. Hypoxia has caused benthic mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal
  • Freshwater lakes & rivers

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Asia

Region

  • Central Asia

Countries

  • Azerbaijan
  • Russia
  • Turkmenistan
  • Iran
  • Kazakhstan

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Dumont HJ. The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 44-52.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Caspian Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:40 GMT.