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Case Studies
Case Studies

Case Studies (326)

Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:54

Himmerfjärden, Sweden

Written by Johanna

Himmerfjärden, Sweden

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Himmerfjärden in southern Stockholm archipelago receives treated sewage. Himmerfjärden is stratified during summer, when hypoxia in bottom waters may develop. Sea ice may limit water exchange with the open Baltic Sea during winter.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Savage C, Elmgren R, Larsson U. 2002. Effects of sewage-derived nutrients on an estuarine macrobenthic community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 234, 67-82.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Himmerfjärden, Sweden. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:00:20 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:40

Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Gotland Basin was first recorded in the 1960s. It has caused benthic mortality and hypoxia areas are avoided by fish. Low dissolved oxygen content creates poor recruitment conditions for cod: mortality and low hatching of cod eggs together with reduced cod prey have been observed. Benthos recolonize the affected areas after bottom water renewal. Gotland Deep in the eastern Gotland Basin is anoxic.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • The Baltic Sea

Countries

  • Sweden
  • Estonia
  • Latvia

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Laine A, Sandler H, Andersin A-B, Stigzelius J. 1997. Long-term changes of macrozoobenthos in the Eastern Gotland Basin and the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) in relation to the hydrographical regime. Journal of Sea Research 38, 135-159.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Gotland Basin, the Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 18:59:46 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:22

Byfjord, Sweden

Written by Johanna

Byfjord, Sweden

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Deep water hypoxia and anoxia in Byfjord are caused by stagnant water; the fjord is strongly stratified andwater renewal time is 2-5 years

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal
  • Freshwater lakes & rivers

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Sweden

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Rosenberg R, Olsson I, Ölundh E. 1977. Energy flow model of an oxygen-deficient estuary on the Swedish west coast. Marine Biology 42, 99-107.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Byfjord, Sweden. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:01:33 GMT.
Thursday, 29 December 2011 08:03

Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Arkona basin is persistent and anoxia occurs regularly below the halocline. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is caused by eutrophication and limited salt water input from the North Sea.  

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • The Baltic Sea

Countries

  • Sweden
  • Denmark
  • Germany

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Karlson K, Rosenberg R, Bonsdorff E. 2002. Temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in Scandinavian and Baltic waters: A review. Oceanography and Marine Biology 40, 427-489.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Arkona Basin, the Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:01:31 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:46

Sullom Voe, Scotland

Written by Johanna

Sullom Voe, Scotland

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Persistent hypoxia in Sullom Voe has caused benthic mass mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • Shetland Islands

Countries

  • United Kingdom

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Pearson TH, Eleftheriou A. 1981. The benthic ecology of Sullom Voe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section B 80, 241-269.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Sullom Voe, Scotland. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:36 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:39

Loch Creran, Scotland

Written by Johanna

Loch Creran, Scotland

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Persistent hypoxia in Loch Creran has caused benthic mass mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • Scotland

Countries

  • United Kingdom

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Gage J. 1972. Preliminary survey of the benthic macrofauna and sediments in Lochs Etive and Creran, sea-lochs along the west coast of Scotland. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 52, 237-276.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Loch Creran, Scotland. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:38 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:12

Caspian Sea

Written by Johanna

Caspian Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Hypoxia in the Caspian Sea depends on the river discharge of Volga: high flow years cause low dissolved oxygen content in deep areas. Hypoxia has caused benthic mortality.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal
  • Freshwater lakes & rivers

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Asia

Region

  • Central Asia

Countries

  • Azerbaijan
  • Russia
  • Turkmenistan
  • Iran
  • Kazakhstan

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Dumont HJ. The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 44-52.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Caspian Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:40 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 14:02

Gdansk Basin, Poland

Written by Johanna

Gdansk Basin, Poland

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Eutrophication and lack of bottom water renewal have created extensive hypoxia in the Gdansk Basin. The wastewater of several large cities is discharged directly into the basin. Persistent hypoxia has been observed since the 1960s. 

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • The Baltic Sea

Countries

  • Poland

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Karlson K, Rosenberg R, Bonsdorff E. 2002. Temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication and oxygen deficiency on benthic fauna in Scandinavian and Baltic waters: A review. Oceanography and Marine Biology 40, 427-489.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Gdansk Basin, Poland. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:04:42 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 13:16

Big Glory Bay, New Zealand

Written by Johanna

Big Glory Bay, New Zealand

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Salmon farming is predicted to cause anoxia in the Big Glory Bay.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries
  • Conservation

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Local/landscape (e.g. lake, catchment, community)

Continent or Ocean

  • Australia & New Zealand

Region

  • Stewart Island

Countries

  • New Zealand

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Morrisey DJ, Gibbs MM, Pickmere SE, Cole RG. 2000. Predicting impacts and recovery of marine-farm sites in Stewart Island, New Zealand, from the Findlay–Watling model. Aquaculture 185, 257-271.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Big Glory Bay, New Zealand. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:06:35 GMT.
Wednesday, 28 December 2011 12:49

Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

Written by Johanna

Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

Main Contributors:

Johanna Yletyinen

Other Contributors:

Summary

Oxygen deficiency in the Gulf of Finland is caused by the restricted water exchange of the deep water and eutrophication. Semi-permanent hypoxia and anoxia occurs in the deep basins of the Gulf of Finland. The hypoxic area may cover 77 000 to 100 000 km2 of bottom; it is an important factor affecting the living conditions.

Type of regime shift

Ecosystem type

  • Marine & coastal

Land uses

  • Fisheries

Spatial scale of the case study

  • Sub-continental/regional (e.g. southern Africa, Amazon basin)

Continent or Ocean

  • Europe

Region

  • North Europe

Countries

  • Russia
  • Estonia
  • Finland

Locate with Google Map

Key References

  1. Laine AO, Andersin AB, Leiniö S, Zuur AF. 2007. Stratification-induced hypoxia as a structuring factor of macrozoobenthos in the open Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Journal of Sea Research 57, 65-77.
  2. Laine AO, Sandler H, Andersin AB, Stigzelius J. 1997. Long-term changes of macrozoobenthos in the Eastern Gotland Basin and the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) in relation to the hydrographical regime. Journal of Sea Research 38, 135-159.

Citation

Johanna Yletyinen. Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. In: Regime Shifts Database, www.regimeshifts.org. Last revised 2012-03-17 19:06:01 GMT.